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Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) on the banks of the Musi River on the Deccan Plateau in southern India. The population of the city is 6.8 million and that of its metropolitan area is 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. The Hyderabad Municipal Corporation was expanded in 2007 to form the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Hyderabad experiences substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.
Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. It remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687, when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the region and the city became part of the Deccan province of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled the princely state of Hyderabad for more than two centuries, in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. The city remained the princely state's capital from 1769 to 1948, when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Union at the conclusion of Operation Polo. The 1956 States Reorganisation Act created the modern state of Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad as its capital. Since 1969, Hyderabad has been a major center of the Telangana movement, which demands that the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh should be made a separate state.
Situated at the crossroads of North and South India, Hyderabad is noted for its unique culture. As the former capital of the largest and richest princely state, and with the patronage of the Nizams, Hyderabad established local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. The city is a tourist destination and has many places of interest, including Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golkonda fort. It has several museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sports venues and other cultural institutions. Hyderabad has emerged as a global hub for the information technology, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. It is home to the Telugu film industry and a major centre for higher education and research, with 13 universities and business schools.